general navigation structure general satellite info ilrs support retroreflector info center of mass site performance info

LAGEOS-1, -2

Jump to: Mission Objectives, Mission Instrumentation, Mission Parameters, Additional Information

Mission Photos:
LAGEOS-I
Courtesy of NASA
LAGEOS-II
Courtesy of ASI

Mission Objectives:

LAser GEOdynamics Satellite-1 (LAGEOS) was designed by NASA and launched in 1976. It was the first spacecraft dedicated exclusively to high-precision laser ranging and provided the first opportunity to acquire laser-ranging data that were not degraded by errors originating in the satellite orbit or satellite array. LAGEOS-2, based on the LAGEOS-1 design, was built by the Italian Space Agency and was launched in 1992.

There are plans for the launch of LAGEOS-3, which is a joint multinational program with collaboration from France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Spain and the United States. Data from LAGEOS-3 would be used to measure, for the first time, a quasi-stationary property of the Earth - its gravitational magnetic dipole moment as predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity.

Mission Instrumentation:

The LAGEOS satellites are covered with 426 cube corner reflectors with all but four of these reflectors made with fused silica glass. The other four reflectors are made of germanium to obtain measurements in the infrared for experimental studies of reflectivity and satellite orientation.

Dr. Carl Sagan designed a plaque that was installed in LAGEOS-1. The plaque is 4 inches by 7 inches (10 cm by 18 cm) stainless steel plate. The spacecraft carries two identical copies included in its interior. In its upper center it displays the simplest counting scheme, binary arithmetic. The numbers one to ten in binary notation are shown. At upper right is a schematic drawing of the Earth in orbit around the Sun, and an arrow indicating direction of motion. The arrowhead points to the right, the convention adopted for indicating the future. All arrows accompanying numbers are "arrows of time". Under the Earth's orbit is the binary number one, denoting the period of time used on the plaque -- one revolution of the Earth, or one year. The remainder of the LAGEOS plaque consists of three maps of the Earth's surface. The first map denotes the Earth 268 million years in the past. All the continents are shown together in one mass. The close fit of South America into West Africa was one of the first hints that continental drift actually occurs. The middle map represents the zero point in time for the other two maps. It displays the present configuration of the planet. The final map shows the Earth's surface 8.4 million years from now -- very roughly the estimated lifetime of the LAGEOS. Many important changes in the Earth's surface are shown, including the drift of California out into the Pacific Ocean. Whoever comes upon the LAGEOS plaque needs only compare a current map of the Earth's geography with that in the lower two maps to calculate roughly the difference between his time and ours. Drift rates of about an inch per year can, in fact be estimated by comparing the bottom two maps. The same objective of LAGEOS and the method of telling time on the plaque are identical. (from NASA/John R. Bannister, February 1977 NASA Aerospace Education Services Project Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma)

Mission Parameters:

LAGEOS-1 LAGEOS-2
Sponsor: United States United States and Italy
Expected Life: many decades many decades
Primary Applications: geodesy geodesy
COSPAR ID: 7603901 9207002
SIC Code: 1155 5986
NORAD SSC Code: 8820 22195
Launch Date: May 4, 1976 October 22, 1992
RRA Diameter: 60 cm 60 cm
RRA Shape: sphere sphere
Reflectors: 426 corner cubes 426 corner cubes
Orbit: circular circular
Inclination: 109.84 degrees 52.64 degrees
Eccentricity: 0.0045 0.0135
Perigee: 5,860 km 5,620 km
Period: 225 minutes 223 minutes
Weight: 406.965 Kg 405.38 kg

Additional information:

Web sites:

Publications:

  • Afonso, G., Barlier, F., Carpino, M., Farinella, P., Mignard, F., Milani, A. and Nobili, A.M., "Orbital Effects of LAGEOS Seasons and Eclipses" Annales Geophysicae, Vol. 7, pp. 501-514, 1989.
  • Angermann, D., H. Mueller, M. Gerstl, Geocenter variations derived from SLR data to LAGEOS 1 and 2. In: J. Adam and K.-P. Schwarz (Eds.). Vistas for Geodesy in the New Millennium, International Association of Geodesy Symposia, Vol. 125, pp. 30-35, Springer, 2002.
  • Angermann, D., Mueller, H., Gerstl, M., Kelm, R., Seemueller, W. and Vei, M. "Laserentfernungsmessugen zu LAGEOS-1 and -2 und ihr Beitrag zu globalen Referenzsystemen", Zeitschrift fuer Vermessungswesen, Germany, (126) pp. 250-256, 2001.
  • Appleby, G. M., and Sinclair, A.T., "A Note on the use of the CSR LAGEOS Ephemerides", Proc. of the 6th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Antibes, France, September 22-26, p. 499, 1986.
  • Appleby, G.M. and Sinclair, A.T., "European and Mediterranean Baselines from 10 Years of Lageos Observations ",Proc. of 1st Turkish Int. Symp. on Deformations, Istanbul, pp. 791-799, 1995.
  • Appleby, G.M., "Orbit determination of the Lageos and Etalon satellites - A comparison of geodetic results and orbital evolution of the Etalons", Proc. Conf. on Dynamics and Astrometry of Natural and Artificial Celestial Bodies, Poznan, Poland, pp. 333-338, 1994.
  • Arnold, David A., "Optical and Infrared Transfer Function of the LAGEOS Retroreflector Array", Smithsonian Institution Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, MA, May 1978.
  • Arnold, D., G. Appleby, "Lageos' Asymmetric Reflectivity", 14th International Laser Ranging Workshop, San Fernando, Spain, June 7-11, 2004.
  • Barlier, F., Carpino, M., Farinella, P., Mignard, F., Milani, A. and Nobili, A.M., "Non-Gravitational Perturbations on the Semi-Major Axis of LAGEOS", Annales Geophysicae, V.4, Series A, pp. 193-210, 1986.
  • Bender, P. and Goad, C.C., "Probable LAGEOS Contributions to Worldwide Geodynamics Control", The Use of Artificial Satellites for Geodesy and Geodynamics, pp. 145-161, 1979.
  • Bertotti, B. and Iess, L., The Rotation of LAGEOS. J. Geophys. Res., 96, pp. 2431-2440, 1991.
  • Biancale, R., Cazenave, A. and Dominh, K., "Tectonic Plate Motions Derived from LAGEOS", Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., Vol. 103, pp. 379-394, 1991.
  • Bianco G, Chersich M, Devoti R, et al., Measurement of LAGEOS-2 rotation by satellite laser ranging observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 10, May 15, pp. 2113-2116, 2001.
  • Bianco, G., Chersich, M., Devoti, R., Luceri, V. and Selden, M., "Measurement of LAGEOS-2 Rotation by SLR Observations", Presentation to 12th International Workshop on Laser Ranging, Matera, Italy, November 13-17, 2000.
  • Capanov, J. and Georgiev, I., "Secular Drift of the Low Degree Zonal Coefficients Obtained from Satellite Laser Ranging to the Geodynamic Satellites LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2", Accepted in Bulgarian Geophysical Journal, 2002.
  • Caporali, A., Cenci, A. and Fermi, M., "Study of the High-Frequency Structure of Polar Motion Derived from LAGEOS Ranging Data", J. Geophys. Res., 95, pp. 10965-10972, 1990.
  • Caporali, A., Cenci, A., Fermi, M. and Palutan, F., "Time series of European baselines determined with LAGEOS", Il Nuovo Cimento, Vol. 11, Issue C3, pp. 273-286, 1988.
  • Cazenave, A., Gegout, P., Soudarin, L., Dominh, K., Barlier, F., Exertier, P. and Boudon, Y., "Geodetic Results from LAGEOS 1 and Doris Satellite Data", Contributions of Space Geodesy in Geodynamics: Crustal Dynamics, AGU Geodynamics Series, Vol. 23, Edited by D.E. Smith and D.L. Turcotte, pp. 81-98, 1993.
  • Cazenave, A., Soudarin, L., Gegout, P., Dominh, K., Barlier, F., Exertier, P. and Boudon, Y., "Tectonic Motions Derived from LAGEOS 1 and DORIS Satellite Data", Pre-print of a paper submitted to the CDP monograph, 1992.
  • Cenci, A., Fermi, M. and Caporali, A., "European Baselines Determined with LAGEOS: The TPZ-88.1 Solution", the Proc. of the 4th International Confr. on the WEGENER/MEDLAS Project, published by T. U. Delft, pp. 195-226, 1990.
  • Cenci, A., Fermi, M., Sciarretta, C., Devoti, R. and Caporali, A., "Tectonic Motion in the Mediterranean Area from Laser Ranging to LAGEOS", Contributions of Space Geodesy in Geodynamics: Crustal Dynamics, AGU Geodynamics Series, Vol. 23, Edited by D.E. Smith and D.L. Turcotte, pp. 347-358, 1993.
  • Chao, B.F. and Eanes, R., "Global Gravitational Changes due to Atmospheric Mass Redistribution as Observed by the Lageos Nodal Residual", Geophys. J. International, Vol. 122, pp. 755-764, 1995.
  • Christodoulidis, D.C., Smith, D.E., Klosko, S.M. and Dunn, P.J., "Solid Earth and Ocean Tide Parameters from Lageos", Proc. 10th Int. Symp. on Earth Tides, 1985.
  • Christodoulidis, D.C., Smith, D.E., Klosko, S.M., Dunn, P.J., Robbins, J.W. and Torrence, M.H., "Contemporary Plate Motions from LAGEOS: A Decade Later", Adv. Space Res., Vol. 6, No. 9, pp. 41-51, 1986.
  • Chu-Gang, F., Yuan-Ian, Z., Fei-Peng, Z., "Determination of EOPs with combined SLR data of Lageos 1 and Lageos 2", Chinese Astronomy and Astrophysics 27, 357-364, 2003.
  • Ciufolini, I. "A Comprehensive Introduction to the LAGEOS Gravitomagnetic Experiment: From the Importance of the Gravitomagnetic Field in Physics to Preliminary Error Analysis and Error Budget", International J. Modern Phys., Series A, Vol. 4, Issue 13, pp. 3083-3145, 1989.
  • Ciufolini, I. and Pavlis, E.C., "The Gravitomagnetic Field and its Measurement with the LAGEOS Satellites", (invited), to appear in Proc. of the 3rd William Fairbank Memorial Conference on Gravitational Relativistic Experiments in Space, Rome, 1998, R. Ruffini (ed.), World Scientific, Singapore, 2001.
  • Ciufolini, I., "Measurement of the Lense-Thirring drag effect on LAGEOS and another high altitude laser ranging satellite", Phys. Rev. Lett., 56, pp. 278-281, 1986.
  • Ciufolini, I., "The LAGEOS Lense-Thirring Precession and the LAGEOS Non-Gravitational Nodal Perturbations", Celestial Mech., Vol. 40, pp. 19-33, 1987.
  • Ciufolini, I., Dobrowolny, M. and Iess, L., "Effect of particle drag on the LAGEOS node and measurement of the gravitomagnetic field", Il Nuovo Cimento, 105B, pp. 573-585, 1990.
  • Cohen, S.C. and Smith, D.E., "LAGEOS Scientific Results: Introduction", J. Geophys. Res., 90, pp. 9217-9220, 1985.
  • Currie, D.G., "On the rotation vector of Lageos - the current observational and computational status", EOS, paper G32B-1, Spring Meeting of the AGU, Baltimore, 1994.
  • Davis, M.A., Gilbreath, G.C., Rolsma, P., Georges, J., Snyder, G. and Eichinger, R., "NRL@SOR SLR Observation Verification Techniques Using LAGEOS", Proc. of the 11th International Workshop on Laser Ranging, Deggendorf, Germany, September 21-25, p. 232, 1998.
  • Devoti, R., Cenci, A., Fermi, M., and Sciarretta, C., "Nearly diurnal structure of polar motion analysing LAGEOS SLR data", IAG Symposia 112, 409-412, 1992.
  • Dow, J.M., "Ocean Tides and Tectonic Plate Motions from LAGEOS", DGK No. C-344, 179pp, 1988.
  • Dow, J.M., Duque, P., and Merino, M.R., "Global Geodynamics from Lageos and Starlette Combination Solutions", Adv. Space Res., V.11, (6), 119-124, 1991.
  • Dow, J.M., and Agrotis, L.G., "Polar Motion and Earth Rotation Series from LAGEOS", Adv. Space Res., V.6, pp. 17-21, 1986.
  • Dunn, P., Torrence, M., Kolenkiewicz, R., Smith, D., "Observations of Surface Forces on the LAGEOS Satellites", EGS-AGU-EUG Joint Assembly, Abstracts from the meeting held in Nice, France, 6 - 11 April 2003, abstract \#7162 7162, 2003.
  • Dunn, P.J., Christodoulidis, D., and Smith, E.D., "Some Modelling Requirements for Precise LAGEOS Orbit Analysis", 5th International Workshop on Laser ranging Instrumentation, Herstmonceux, U.K., published by Geodetic Institute, Univ. Bonn, p. 42, 1984.
  • Dunn, P.J., Robbins, J.W., and Smith, D.E., "Deformation in the Pacific Basin from LAGEOS", -Pre-print of an Edinburgh IAG paper. Publ. in Global and Regional Geodynamics, Symp. 101 of the IAG, Edinburgh, pp. 96-104, 1989.
  • Dunn, P.J., and Robbins, J.W., "LAGEOS Orbit Accuracy", -preprint of paper published in Proc. of the 3rd International. Conf. on the WEGENER/MEDLAS Project, pp. 267-276, P. Baldi and S. Zerbini (eds.), Univ. of Bologna, 1987.
  • Eanes, R., Schutz, B., and Tapley, B., "Earth and Ocean Tide Effects on Lageos and Starlette", Proc. Ninth Int. Symp. on Earth Tides, pp. 239-250, 1983.
  • Eanes, R., Schutz, B., and Tapley, B., "Earth and Ocean Tide Effects on Lageos and Starlette", the Proc. of the Ninth International Symp on Earth Tides, pp. 239-250, 1983.
  • Eanes, R.J., and Ries, J.C., "Monthly and Constant Velocity Station Positions from LAGEOS and TOPEX/Poseidon", presented at ITRF2000 Workshop, Paris, France, November 2-3, 2000.
  • Eanes, R.J., and Ries, J.C., "Monthly and Constant Velocity Station Positions from Lageos and TOPEX/Poseidon", ITRF2000 Workshop, Paris, France, November 2-3, 2000.
  • Farinella, P., Nobili, A.M., Barlier, F., and Mignard, F., "Effects of Thermal Thrust on the Node and Inclination of LAGEOS", Astron. Astophys., 234, pp. 546-554, 1990.
  • Farinella, P., Vokrouhlicky, D., and Barlier, F., "The rotation of Lageos and its long-term semimajor axis decay: a self-consistent solution", J. Geophys. Res., 101, 17861-17872, 1996.
  • Farinella, P., and Vokrouhlicky, D., "The Coupled Evolution of Lageos' Rotation and Orbit", -preprint to a letter to Nature, 1995.
  • Feng, C., Yang, F., and Zhu, Y., "LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 Quicklook Residual Analysis", Presentation to 12th International Workshop on Laser Ranging, Matera, Italy, November 13-17, 2000.
  • Feng, C., Zhou, M., and Zhang, H., "Determination of the Gravitational Coefficient of the Earth from Lageos", Symposium on Western Pacific Satellite Laser Ranging Network, in Proc. of the 9th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, p. 849, 1994.
  • Feng, C. G., Zhang, F. P., Zhu, Y. L., "Determination of LAGEOS satellite's precise orbits and residual analysis", Acta Astronomica Sinica 44, 55-64, 2003.
  • Feng, C. G., Zhu, Y. L., Zhang, F. P., "The determination of EOP from the SLR data of combining lageos1 and lageos2", Acta Astronomica Sinica 44, 189-196, 2003.
  • Gegout, P., and Cazenave, A., "Geodynamic Parameters Derived from 7 Years of Laser Data on LAGEOS", Geophys. Res. Let., V.18, pp. 1739-1742, 1991.
  • Gegout, P., and Cazenave, A., "Temporal Variations of the Earth Gravity Field for 1985-1989 Derived from LAGEOS", Geophys. J. Int, 114, pp. 347-359, 1993.
  • Gendt, G., Montag, H., and Dick, G., "Plate Kinematics in a Global and European Scale by Lageos Laser Ranging Data from 1983 to 1990", Contributions of Space Geodesy in Geodynamics: Crustal Dynamics, AGU Geodynamics Series, V.23, pp. 311-330, Edited by D.E. Smith and D.L. Turcotte, 1993.
  • Gendt, G., and Dietrich, R., "Determination of Geodynamical Parameters based on LAGEOS Laser Ranging Data", Gerlands Beitr. Geophysik, V.97, pp. 438-449, 1988.
  • Georgiev, I., and Chapanov, J., "Analysis of Laser Ranging to the Geodynamic Satellites LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 for the Period 1984-2000", Accepted in Bulgarian Geophysical Journal, 2002.
  • Gross, R.S., and Chao, B.F., "Excitation Study of the LAGEOS-Derived Chandler Wobble", J. Geophys. Res., 90, pp. 9369-9380, 1985.
  • Gutierrez, R., and Wilson, C.R., "Seasonal Air and Water Mass Redistribution Effects on LAGEOS and Starlette", Geophys. Res. Let., 14, pp. 929-932, 1987.
  • Habib, S., Hloz, D.E., Kheyfets, A., Matzner, R.A., Miller, W.A., and Tolman, B.W., "Spin Dynamics of the LAGEOS Satellite in Support of a Measurement of the Earth's Gravitomagnetism", - Physical Rev. Series D, Vol. 50, pp. 6068-6079, 1994.
  • Hajela, D.P., "Accuracy Estimates of Gravity Potential Differences Between Western and the United States through LAGEOS Satellite Laser Ranging Network", OSU-Rpt. 345, 67pp, 1983.
  • Iorio, L., "Some comments on a recent paper on the impact of the secular variations of the even zonal harmonics on the Lense-Thirring tests with the LAGEOS satellites", ArXiv General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology e-prints gr-qc/0412057, 2004.
  • Iorio, L., "Towards a few-percent measurement of the Lense-Thirring effect with the LAGEOS and LAGEOS II satellites?", ArXiv General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology e-prints gr-qc/0408031, 2004.
  • Iorio, L., Ciufolini, I., Pavlis, E. C., Schiller, S., Dittus, H., Lammerzahl, C., "On the possibility of measuring the Lense Thirring effect with a LAGEOS LAGEOS II OPTIS mission", Classical and Quantum Gravity 21, 2139-2151, 2004.
  • Kolenkiewicz, R., Ryan, J., and Torrence, M.H., "A Comparison Between LAGEOS Laser Ranging and Very Long Baseline Interferometry Determined Baseline Lengths", J. Geophys. Res., 90, pp. 9265-9274, 1985.
  • Kolenkiewicz, R., Smith, D.E., Dunn, P.J., and Robbins, J.W., "The LAGEOS II Satellite's First Year in Orbit", -view-graphs shown at the Fall AGU Meeting, 1993.
  • Kolenkiewiez, R., Dunn, P.J., Eanes, R.J., and Johnson, R., "Comparison Of Lageos Satellite Ranging Normal Points", Proc. of the 6th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Antibes, France, September 22-26, p. 11, 1986.
  • Lemoine, J.-M., R Biancale, G Bourda, "Processing 18.6 Years of Lageos Data", 14th International Laser Ranging Workshop, San Fernando, Spain, June 7-11, 2004.
  • Lerch, F.J., Klosko, S.M., and Patel, G.B., "A Refined Gravity Model from LAGEOS (GEM-L2)", Geophys. Res. Let., V.9, pp. 1263-1266, 1982.
  • Lerch, F.J., Klosko, S.M., and Patel, G.B., "Gravity Model Development from LAGEOS", Geophys. Res. Letters, 9, pp. 1263-1266, b, 1982.
  • Lucchesi, D. M., Reassessment of the error modelling of non-gravitational perturbations on LAGEOS II and their impact in the Lense-Thirring derivation - Part II, PLANET SPACE SCI 50 (10-11): 1067-1100 Aug-Sep 2002.
  • Lucchesi, D., and Farinella, P., "Optical Properties of the Earth's Surface and Long-Term Perturbations of LAGEOS's Semimajor Axis", J. Geophys. Res., 97, pp. 7121-7128, 1992.
  • Lucchesi, D.M., "Reassessment of the error modelling of non-gravitational perturbations on LAGEOS II and their impact in the Lense-Thirring derivation-Part II", PLANET SPACE SCI 50 (10-11): 1067-1100 Aug-Sep 2002.
  • Lucchesi, D. M., "LAGEOS II perigee shift and Schwarzschild gravitoelectric field", Physics Letters A 318, 234-240, 2003.
  • Lucchesi, D. M., "LAGEOS Satellites Asymmetric Reflectivity Effect and the Germanium Cube Corner Retroreflectors", EGS-AGU-EUG Joint Assembly, Abstracts from the meeting held in Nice, France, 6 - 11 April 2003.
  • Lucchesi, D. M., "The asymmetric reflectivity effect on the LAGEOS satellites and the germanium retroreflectors", Geophysical Research Letters 30, 11-1, 2003.
  • Malkin, Z., "Results of Analysis of SLR Observations of Lageos 1 and 2 for 1983-1999: Solutions EOP(IAA)99L01 and EOP(IAA)99L02", In: NEOS Annual Report for 1998, 16-17, 1999.
  • Malkin, Z.M., "Earth rotation parameters from Lageos-1and2 SLR observations", In: NEOS Annual Report for 1996, 22-23, 1997.
  • Malkin, Z.M., "Earth rotation parameters from Lageos1and2 SLR observations", In: IERS Technical Note 19, Paris, L29-L32, 1995.
  • Martin, C.F., and Rubincam, D.P., "Earth albedo affects on LAGEOS I satellite based on Earth radiation Budget (ERBE) satellite measurements", EOS, paper G32A-3, presented at the Spring Meeting of the AGU, Baltimore, MD, ., 1993.
  • Masters, E.G., Hirsch, B., and Stolz, A., "A Filter For Lageos Laser Range Data", Proc. of the 4th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Austin, Texas, published by Geodetic Institute, Univ. of Bonn, October 12-16, p. 495, 1981.
  • Merriam, J.B., "LAGEOS and UT Measurements of Long-Period Earth Tides and Mantle Q", Jnl. Geophys. Res., 90, pp. 9423-9431, 1985.
  • Metris, G., Vokrouhlicky, D., Ries, J.C., and Eanes, R.J., "Lageos Spin Axis and Non-gravitational Excitations of its Orbit", Advances in Space Research, 23/4, 721-725, Proc. 32nd Cospar Scientific Assembly, Nagoya, Japan, July 12-19, 1998, April 1999.
  • Metris, G., Vokrouhlicky, D., Ries, J.C., and Eanes, R.J., "Non-gravitational Phenomena and the Lageos Eccentricity Excitations", J. Geophys. Res., 102(B2), 2711-2729, 1997.
  • Mignard, F., Afonso, G., Barlier, F., Carpino, M., Farinella, P., Milani, A., and Nobili, A.M., "LAGEOS Ten Years of Quest for the Non-gravitational Forces", Adv. Space Res., V.10, No.3, pp. 221-227, 1990.
  • Minott, P., Zagwodzki, T., Varghese, T., Seldon, M., "Prelaunch Optical Characterization of the Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS 2)", NASA Technical Paper 3400, 1993.
  • Montag, H., Gendt, G., Dick, G., Nischan, Th., and Sommerfeld, W., "Earth Orientation and Station Coordinates by Lageos Laser Ranging Data from 1980 to Sept. 1991", IERS Technical Note 11, 99-104, Paris 1992.
  • Montag, H., Reigber, Ch., Sommerfeld, W., and Dick, G., "Station coordinates and earth rotation parameters based on Lageos laser ranging data", IERS Technical Note No. 17, Paris, P. L25- L30, 1994.
  • Montag, H., Reigber, Ch., and Sommerfeld, W., "Solution for the Terrestrial Reference Frame based on Lageos laser ranging data", IERS Technical Note No. 19, L21-L24, Paris, 1995.
  • Moore, P., Wang, J, "Geocentre variation from laser tracking of LAGEOS1/2 and loading data", Advances in Space Research 31, 1927-1933, 2003.
  • Murata, M., "Observing Geodynamics from the Analysis of 7.3-Year LAGEOS Data", Contributions of Space Geodesy in Geodynamics: Crustal Dynamics, AGU Geodynamics Series, V.23, pp. 73-80, Edited by D.E. Smith and D.L. Turcotte, 1993.
  • Nerem, R.S., Chao, B.F., Au, A.Y., Chan, J.C., Klosko, S.M., Pavlis, N.K., and Williamson, R.G., "Time variations of the Earth's gravitational field from satellite laser ranging to LAGEOS", Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(7), 595-598, c, 1993.
  • Neubert, R., "Satellite Signature Model: Application to LAGEOS and TOPEX", In: Proc. Annual EUROLAS Meeting, Munich, 1995.
  • Nicolas, J., "Difference of LAGEOS satellite response from raw data analysis of the collocation experiment between the Grasse Satellite and Lunar Laser Ranging stations", Presentation to 13th International Workshop on Laser Ranging, Washington, DC, USA, October 7-11, 2002.
  • Noomen, R., Ambrosius, B.A.C., and Wakker, K.F., "Crustal Motions in the Mediterranean Region Determined from Laser Ranging to LAGEOS", in Contributions of Space Geodesy in Geodynamics: Crustal Dynamics, AGU Geodynamics Series, V.23, pp. 331-346, Edited by D.E. Smith and D.L. Turcotte, 1993.
  • Otsubo, T., Gibbs, P., Walters, D.G., Wood, R., "Determination of Lageos Spin Motion from Photometric Observation", Presentation to 12th International Workshop on Laser Ranging, Matera, Italy, November 13-17, 2000.
  • Otsubo, T., and Endo, T., "Quick Bias Report for Lageos and Ajisai Data", Proc. of the 11th International Workshop on Laser Ranging, Deggendorf, Germany, September 21-25, p. 650, 1998.
  • Otsubo, T., Sherwood, R. A., Gibbs, P., Wood, R., "Determination of LAGEOS-2 spin from photometric observation: (2) Misalignment of reflectors and rotational direction", EGS-AGU-EUG Joint Assembly, Abstracts from the meeting held in Nice, France, 6 - 11 April 2003.
  • Pavlis, E.C., "On the Geodetic Applications of Simultaneous Range Differences to LAGEOS", J. Geophys. Res., 90, pp. 9431-9438, 1985.
  • Pavlis, E.C., "On the Geodetic Applications of Simultaneous Range-Differencing to LAGEOS", OSU-Rpt. 338, 213pp, 1982.
  • Pavlis, E., "Time series of weekly TRF realizations from laser ranging to LAGEOS 1 and 2", EGS-AGU-EUG Joint Assembly, Abstracts from the meeting held in Nice, France, 6 - 11 April 2003.
  • Peltier, W.R., "The LAGEOS Constraint on Deep Mantle Viscosity: Results from a New Normal Mode Method for the Inversion of Viscoelastic Relaxation", Jnl. Geophys. Res., 90, pp. 9411-9422, 1985.
  • Reigber, C., Balmino, G., Muller, H., Bosch, W., and Moynot, B., "GRIM Gravity Model Improvement Using LAGEOS (GRIM3-L1)", J. Geophys. Res., 90, pp. 9285-9300, 1985.
  • Reigber, C., Foerste, C., Schwintzer, P., Massmann, F.H., Mueller, H., and Ellmer, W., "Plate Motions and Deformations from 10 Years of LAGEOS Data", presentation to the 20th IUGG Meeting, Vienna, 1991.
  • Reigber, Ch., Foerste, Ch., Schwintzer, P., Massmann, F.H., and Mueller, H., "Earth Orientation and Station Coordinates Computed from 11.7L5 Years of LAGEOS Observations (DGFII 92 L01)", In: Charlot, P. (Ed.): Earth orientation, reference frames and atmospheric excitation functions submitted for the 1991 IERS Annual Report. IERS Technical Note No 11, Central Bureau of IERS, 83-88, Paris, 1992.
  • Ries, J.C., Eanes, R.J., Tapley, B.D., and Watkins, M.M., "Measuring the Lense-Thirring Precession with Lageos-3", 25th Meeting of the AAS Division on Dynamical Astronomy, Kingsville, TX, March 28-29, 1994.
  • Ries, J.C., Eanes, R.J., and Watkins, M.M., "Spin vector influence on the Lageos ephemeris", report to the 2nd Meeting of the IAG Special Study Group 2.130, b, 1993.
  • Robbins, J.W., Williamson, R.G., and Rubincam, D.P., "Lageos I and II spin axis evolution", EOS, paper G32B-2 given at the Spring Meeting of the AGU, Baltimore, MD, 1994.
  • Rubincam, D.D., and Weiss, N.R., "Earth Albedo and the Orbit of LAGEOS", - NASA TM-86210, 69pp, 1985.
  • Rubincam, D.P., "Drag on the LAGEOS Satellite", J. Geophys. Res., 95, pp. 4881-4886, 1990.
  • Rubincam, D.P., "LAGEOS Orbit Decay Due to Infrared Radiation from Earth", J. Geophys. Res., 92, pp. 1287-1294, 1987.
  • Rubincam, D.P., "Lageos orbit decay to infrared radiation from the Earth", J. Geophys. Res., 92, 1287, 1994.
  • Rubincam, D.P., "On the Secular Decrease in the Semimajor Axis of LAGEOS's Orbit", Celest. Mech., V.26, pp. 361-382, 1982.
  • Rubincam, D.P., "Postglacial Rebound Observed by LAGEOS and the Effective Viscosity of the Lower Mantle", J. Geophys. Res., 89, pp. 1077-1088, 1984.
  • Rubincam, D.P., "Yarkovsky Thermal Drag on LAGEOS", J. Geophys. Res., 93, pp. 13805-13810, 1988.
  • Rubincam, D.P., Knocke, P., Taylor, V.R., and Blackwell, S., "Earth Anisotropic Reflection and the Orbit of LAGEOS", J. Geophys. Res., 92, pp. 11662-11668, 1987.
  • Rubincam, D.P., and Mallama, A., "Terrestrial Atmospheric Effects on Satellite Eclipses with Application to the Acceleration of LAGEOS", J. Geophys. Res, V.100, pp. 20, 285-20290, 1995.
  • Rubincam, D.P., and Weiss, N.R., "The Orbit of LAGEOS and Solar Eclipses", J. Geophys. Res., 90, pp. 9399-9402, 1985.
  • Rutkowska, M., and Noomen, R., "SLR system characteristics in WESTPAC, LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 observations", Presentation to 12th International Workshop on Laser Ranging, Matera, Italy, November 13-17, 2000.
  • Rutkowska, M., and Schillak, S., "Estimation of the Borowiec station position from 5-year LAGEOS observations", Artificial Satellites, Planetary Geodesy-No 22, Vol. 29, No 2, Warsaw, Poland, pp. 67-73, 1994.
  • Scharroo, R., Wakker, K.F., Ambrosius, B.A.C., and Noomen, R., "On the Along-Track Acceleration of the LAGEOS Satellite", J. Geophys. Res., 96, pp. 729-740, 1991.
  • Schillak, S., "The stability of the SLR stations coordinates determined from monthly arcs of LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 laser ranging in 1999-2001", Presentation to 13th International Workshop on Laser Ranging, Washington, DC, USA, October 7-11, 2002.
  • Schillak, S., Wnuk, E., "The SLR stations coordinates determined from monthly arcs of lageos-1 and lageos-2 laser ranging in 1999-2001, Advances in Space Research 31, 1935-1940, 2003.
  • Schutz, B.E., Tapley, B.D., Eanes, R.J., and Cuthbertson, B., "LAGEOS Ephemeris Predictions", Proc. of the 4th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Austin, Texas, published by Geodetic Institute, Univ. of Bonn, October 12-16, p.145, 1981.
  • Shelus, P.J., "A Simple Software Scheduling Tool for Efficient Observing Operations At a Lunar /LAGEOS Laser Ranging Station", Proc. of the 6th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Antibes, France, September 22-26, p. 511, 1986.
  • Sinclair, A.T., Appleby, G.M., and Xia, J., "Determination of Earth Rotation and Station Coordinates from LAGEOS Data", In The Earth's Rotation and Reference Frames for Geodesy and Geodynamics, IAU, 1988.
  • Sinclair, A.T., Neubert, R., and Appleby, G.M., "The LAGEOS Centre of Mass Correction for Different Detection Techniques", In: Proc. Annual EUROLAS Meeting, Munich, 1995.
  • Smith, D.E., Christodoulidis, D.C., Kolenkiewicz, R., and 5 others, "A Global Geodetic Reference Frame from LAGEOS Ranging (SL5.1AP)", J. Geophys. Res., 90, pp. 9221-9234, 1985.
  • Smith, D.E., Kolenkiewicz, R., Dunn, P.J., Klosko, S., Robbins, J.W., Torrence, M.H., Williamson, R.G., Pavlis, E.C., Douglas, N.B., and Fricke, S.K., "LAGEOS Geodetic Analysis -- SL7.1", - NASA TM 104549, 251pp, 1991.
  • Smith, D.E., Kolenkiewicz, R., Dunn, P.J., Robbins, J.W., Torrence, M.H., Klosko, S.M., Williamson, R.G., Pavlis, E.C., Douglas, N.B., and Fricke, S.K., "Plate Motions and Deformations from LAGEOS", International Association of Geodesy Symposia 101, Global and Regional Geodynamics, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1990.
  • Smith, D.E., Kolenkiewicz, R., Dunn, P.J., Robbins, J.W., Torrence, M.H., Klosko, S.M., Williamson, R.G., Pavlis, E.C., Douglas, N.B., and Fricke, S.K., "Tectonic Motion and Deformation from Satellite Laser Ranging to LAGEOS", J. Geophys. Res., 95, pp. 22013-22042, 1990.
  • Smith, D.E., Kolenkiewicz, R., Dunn, P.J., Robbins, J.W., Torrence, M.H., Klosko, S.M., Williamson, R.G., Pavlis, E.C., Douglas, N.B., and Fricke, S.K., "Tectonic Motion and Deformation from Satellite Laser Ranging to LAGEOS", Journal of Geophysical Research, 95, B13, 22013-22041, 1990.
  • Smith, D.E., Kolenkiewicz, R., Dunn, P.J., Torrence, M.H., Klosko, S.M., Robbins, J.W., Williamson, R.G., Pavlis, E.C., Douglas, N.B. and Fricke, S.K., "The Determination of Present-Day Tectonic Motions from Laser Ranging to LAGEOS:, Developments in Four-Dimensional Geodesy", edited by F.K. Brunner and C. Rizos, Springer-Verlag Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences 29, pp. 221-240, New York, 1990.
  • Smith, D.E., Kolenkiewicz, R., Dunn, P.J., Torrence, M.H., Klosko, S.M., Robbins, J.W., Williamson, R.G., Pavlis, E.C., Douglas, N.B., and Fricke, S.K., "The Determination of Present-Day Tectonic Motions from Laser Ranging to LAGEOS", Developments in Four-Dimensional Geodesy, pp. 221-240, 1990.
  • Smith, D.E., Kolenkiewicz, R., Dunn, P.J., Torrence, M.H., Klosko, S.M., Robbins, J.W., Williamson, R.G., Pavlis, E.C., Douglas, N.B., and Fricke, S.K., "The Determination of Present-Day Tectonic Motions from Laser Ranging to LAGEOS", presentation to the Ron Mather Symp. on Four Dimensional Geodesy, Kensington, Australia, March 28-31, 1989, 1989.
  • Smith, D.E., Kolenkiewicz, R., Dunn, P.J., Torrence, M.H., Robbins, J.W., Klosko, S.M., Williamson, R.G., Pavlis, E.C., Douglas, N.B., and Fricke, S.K., "Plate Motions and Deformation from LAGEOS", in Global and Regional Geodynamics, Symp. 101 of the IAG, Edinburgh, pp. 21-29. (930210), 1989.
  • Smith, D.E., Kolenkiewicz, R., Dunn, P.J., Torrence, M.H., Robbins, J.W., Klosko, S.M., Williamson, R.G., and Pavlis, E.C., "LAGEOS Geodetic Analysis--SL7.1", NASA TM 104549, September, 1991.
  • Smith, D.E., Kolenkiewicz, R., Dunn, P.J., and Torrence, M.H., "Determination of Station Coordinates from LAGEOS", The Use of Artificial Satellites for Geodesy and Geodynamics, pp. 162-172, 1979.
  • Smith, D.E., Torrence, M.H., Dunn, P.J., and Pavlis, E.C., "Definition of the Vertical from LAGEOS Laser Ranging", presentation to the Fall 1990 AGU, San Francisco, 1990.
  • Smith, D.E., and Dunn, P.J., "Long Term Evolution of the LAGEOS Orbit", Geophys. Res. Let., 7, pp. 437-440, 1980.
  • Stainer, F.W., and Vassallo, E., "ESOC's Support to the Lageos-2 Mission", - ESA Bull., No.75, pp. 74-78, 1993.
  • Stolz, A., Vincent, M.A., Bender, P.L., Eanes, R.J., Watkins, M.M., and Tapley, B.D., "Rate of Change of the Quincy-Monument Peak Baseline from a Translocation Analysis of LAGEOS Laser Range Data", Geophy. Rsch. Letters, V.16, pp. 539-542, 1989.
  • Tapley, B.D., Schutz, B.E., Eanes, R.J., Ries, J.C., and Watkins, M.M., "LAGEOS Laser Ranging Contributions to Geodynamics, Geodesy and Orbital Dynamics", Contributions of Space Geodesy in Geodynamics: Crustal Dynamics, AGU Geodynamics Series, V.24, pp. 147-174, Edited by D.E. Smith and D.L. Turcotte, 1993.
  • Tapley, B.D., Schutz, B.E., and Eanes, R.J., "Station Coordinates, Baselines, and Earth Rotation from LAGEOS Laser Ranging: 1976-1984", J. Geophys. Res., 90, pp. 9235-9248, 1985.
  • Tatevian, S., and Bayuk, O., "Optimum Planning of LAGEOS Laser Ranging for Geodynamic Programs", Proc. of the 11th International Workshop on Laser Ranging, Deggendorf, Germany, September 21-25, p. 627, 1998.
  • Torrence, M.H., Dunn, P.J., and Kolenkiewicz, R., "Characteristics of the LAGEOS and ETALON Satellites Orbits", Adv. Space Res., V.16, No. 12, pp. 21-24, 1995.
  • Varghese, T., Selden, M., Oldham, T., Clarke, C., and Zagwodski, T., "Test Results from LAGEOS-2 Optical Characterization Using Pulsed Lasers", Proc. 8th Intern. Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Annapolis, MD, May 18-22, 1993, NASA Conference Publ. 3214, p. 6-33, 1992.
  • Vespe, F., "Direct- and Indirect-Solar-Radiation Effects Acting on LAGEOS and the Gravitomagnetic Experiment", Estratto da Il Nuova Cimento, V. 108B, pp. 587-602, 1993.
  • Vokrouhlicky, D., Farinella, P., and Mignard, F., "Solar Radiation Pressure Perturbations for Earth Satellites: II. An Approximate Method to Model Penumbra Transitions and the Long-term Orbital Effects on LAGEOS", - Astron. Astrophys., V. 285, pp. 333-343, 1994.
  • Watkins, M.M., "Tracking Station Coordinates and the Temporal Evolution as Determined from Laser Ranging to the LAGEOS Satellite", PhD Dissertation, Univ. of Texas, 145pp, 1990.
  • Watkins, M.M., Eanes, R.J., Tapley, B.D., and Schutz, B.E., "Station Positions and Plate Motion from LAGEOS Long Arc LLA8903", -Publ. in Global and Regional Geodynamics, Symp. 101 of the IAG, Edinburgh, pp. 1-10, 1989.
  • Watkins, M.M., Tapley, B.D., Eanes, R.J., and Ries, J.C., "Detailed Simulation of the Lageos-3 Measurement of the Lense-Thirring Precession", The First William Fairbank Conference on Relativistic Gravitational Experiments in Space, edited by M. Demlanski and C.W.F. Everitt, Advanced Series in Astrophysics and Cosmology, Vol. 7, World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore, pp 189-194, 1993.
  • Watkins, M.M., Tapley, B.D., Eanes, R.J., and Ries, J.C., "Detailed simulation of the Lageos-3 measurement of the Lense-Thirring precession", in Proc. First William Fairbank Conf. on Relativistic Gravitational Experiments in Space, Rome, Italy, September ., 1990.
  • Williamson, R.G., Torrence, M.H., Robbins, J.W., Pavlis, E.C., Klosko, S.M., Dunn, P.J., Smith, D.E., and Fricke, S.K., "The GSFC LAGEOS Analysis Solution SL7.1: An Overview", presentation to the CDP Meeting, Pasadena, 1988.
  • Wood, R., "LAGEOS-2 spin rate and orientation (Poster Summary)", Presentation to 13th International Workshop on Laser Ranging, Washington, DC, USA, October 7-11, 2002.
  • Yoder, C.F., Williams, J.G., Dickey, J.O., Schutz, B.E., Eanes, R.J., and Tapley, B.D., "Secular Variation of Earth's Gravitational Harmonic J2 Coefficient from LAGEOS and Nontidal Acceleration of Earth Rotation", Nature, V.303, pp. 757-762, 1983.
  • Zerbini, S., "Crustal Motion from Short-Arc Analysis of the LAGEOS Data", in Contributions of Space Geodesy in Geodynamics: Crustal Dynamics, AGU Geodynamics Series, V.23, pp. 371-388, Edited by D.E. Smith and D.L. Turcotte, 1992.
  • Zhu, Y., Feng, C., Zhou, Y., "Earth orientation parameters during 1990-2001 solved with Lageos 1 SLR data", Shanghai Observatory Annals 24, 28-33, 2003.