Etalon-1 and -2
Etalon are a Russian family (Etalon-1, Etalon-2) of passive geodetic satellites dedicated to satellite laser ranging. Etalon-1 was the first geodynamic satellite launched by the former Soviet Union. The Etalon spacecraft were launched in 1989 in conjunction with a pair of GLObal'naya NAvigatisionnay Sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS) satellites. The mission objectives were to determine a high accuracy terrestrial reference frame and earth rotation parameters, to improve the gravity field, and to improve the gravitational constant.
The Etalon satellites are passive satellites. The only instrumentation is the retro-reflector array which consists of 2 different type of cube corners.
|Expected Life:||hundreds of years||hundreds of years|
|NORAD SSC Code:||19751||20026|
|Launch Date:||January 10, 1989||May 31, 1989|
|RRA Diameter:||1.294 m||1.294 m|
|Reflectors:||2146 corner cubes||2146 corner cubes|
|Inclination:||64.9 degrees||65.5 degrees|
|Perigee:||19,120 km||19,120 km|
|Period:||676 minutes||675 minutes|
|Weight:||1415 kg||1415 kg|
- Etalon array response (NERC/IPIE)
- Federation of American Scientists (FAS)
- JSC "Academician M.F. Reshetnev" Information Satellite Systems"
- Appleby, G.M., "Long-Arc analyses of SLR Observations of the Etalon Geodetic Satellites", Journal of Geodesy, Vol. 72, Issue 6, pp. 333-342, 1998.
- Appleby, G.M., "Orbit determination of the Lageos and Etalon satellites - A comparison of geodetic results and orbital evolution of the Etalons", Proc. Conf. on Dynamics and Astrometry of Natural and Artificial Celestial Bodies, Poznan, Poland, pp. 333-338, 1994.
- Dick, G., Gendt, G., Montag, H., Nischan, Th., and Sommerfeld, W., "Results of Etalon data analysis", Geodesy and Physics of the Earth-Geodetic Contributions to Geodynamics. Montag, H., Reigber, Ch. (Eds.), IAG No. 112, Potsdam, 1992, 315-318, Springer, London, 1993.
- Mironov, N.T., Emetz. A.I., Zaharov, A.N., and Tchebotarev, V.E., "ETALON-1, -2 Center of Mass Correction and Array Reflectivity", Proc. 8th Intern. Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Annapolis, MD, May 18-22, 1993, NASA Conference Publ. 3214, p. 6-9, 1992.
- Torrence, M.H., Dunn, P.J., and Kolenkiewicz, R., "Characteristics of the LAGEOS and ETALON Satellites Orbits", Adv. Space Res., V.16, No. 12, pp. 21-24, 1995.
- Wiant, J., "Tunable Etalon Usage at MLRS Mcdonald Laser Ranging Station", 5th International Workshop on Laser ranging Instrumentation, Herstmonceux, U.K., published by Geodetic Institute, Univ. Bonn, p. 185, 1984.